Blockchain is the technology that runs Bitcoin and Libra
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What is Blockchain? - A decentralized database.
What is Blockchain for? - Ideally gets rid of fraud by sharing among everyone.
What Blockchain Technologies will be used? Exonum and/or Parity for Private, Libra coming soon, and Bitcoin via Chainpoint.
Blockchain can be broken down into "Block" and "Chain".
A Block stores a bundle of information about a transaction of data, and with blockchain that information is stored like a fingerprint (this block is unique to all other blocks by a hash)
A Chain is where all of these unique "Blocks" are stored in the order they were received.
https://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/blockchain.asp#what-is-blockchain has a good write up of blockchain
The Merkle is the hash with the data. It is repeatable for this and all images.
Click the Create a Merkle again and the same hash will appear.
The next step would be to upload this hash to the blockchain (Bitcoin, Etherium)